Could be wrong on this but in my head there are no active components between the battery and alternator.
The battery is connected to the chassis; the alternator is bolted the the engine which is connected to the chassis.
Then there is a cable connecting alternator output to the battery positive. A difference of over 2 volts to me is loose connections or dodgy cables.
As you say the alt is putting out 14V then it seems to be doing what it should do - its just not getting to the battery.