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Everything posted by Tdci-Peter

  1. If I understand this correctly: The original ECU seemed to fail intermittently, fine sometimes & useless at other times. The replacement ECU with the cloned software never worked well enough to even drive the car. The replacement ECU, after a visit to a Ford dealer workshop where it had proper Ford software loaded into it, seems to be working ok. I am not entirely surprised that an amateur attempt to copy software did not work, it is a very complex mass of code and data. So hopefully the fault was in the old ECU, and the new one will fix it. The CAN bus has a big weakness. It is multi-drop. This means all modules on one bus are directly connected to one physical pair of wires. Short circuit or low impedance type problems on any one module can bring the whole bus down, and as this bus is vital for diagnostics, it is impossible to identify the location of the problem without disconnecting all modules to isolate the problem. With a point to point bus like USB, the bus should always work up to the faulty node, making diagnosis possible. Point to point buses can also run much faster than multi-drop. It was a bit of a mistake standardising on CAN for automotive use!
  2. I am 99% sure it will need coding. In many cases the immobiliser keys are coded into the IC (Instrument Cluster). On cars around that age, Forscan can usually re-programme the immobiliser (PATS), but it is not a really easy procedure. See: https://forscan.org/forum/viewtopic.php?t=839
  3. I would hazard a guess, from Moe's post on Feb 4th above, that the audio unit was a prime suspect. Moe has not visited this site since February. There must be hundreds of posts about batteries going flat on this site, I have seen quite a few. Far fewer come to any conclusion, sadly. Of those that do find an answer, not many have the same answer. Audio units do feature high in the problem list though. To test a battery & charging system properly needs expensive equipment & experience. But there are some quick checks (outlined in the post above) that can tell you if a full test is needed. All that is needed is a basic, cheap multimeter. Simply removing fuses to check if some part is causing a current draw can cause more confusion than help. A lot of equipment has more than one supply, and many items are inter-connected. But if the car owners manual is used to find fuses that supply unswitched (permanent) battery power to items like radios & accessories, it can sometimes help. If the manual is lost, sites on the internet can usually supply them. It can take time and perseverance to track these faults down, but if the alternative is to scrap or sell for peanuts, a decent working car in all other ways, then it must be worth it!
  4. On the Focus, the a/c pipes block access to the servo & master cylinder, making diy work on these rather impractical (unless the a/c is already empty!). I suspect this is true of many cars. So eliminating brake problems at the wheels first is a good idea even if they are not prime suspect. A servo system in good condition should be able to give 2 or 3 full brake applications with a recently stopped engine. And there should be a distinct change in pedal feel when it does run out of vacuum. From the normal (engine running) slightly yielding feel to solid. Also it should be able to operate after a few minutes from stopping. Leaks through the diaphragm may be testable by holding light pressure on the pedal, moving it very slightly at intervals, and seeing how long it takes to go hard with engine recently stopped. While the footbrake is off, vacuum is applied to both sides of the diaphragm. When the brake is applied, one side of the servo is first isolated from the vacuum inlet (actually an air outlet!), then air is allowed in to that side to create the pressure over the diaphragm to assist the brake pressure. This air going out to vacuum pump and in from atmosphere is regulated by a balancing valve that controls the hydraulic pressure to a set multiple of the pedal force. So with engine off and steady brake pressure applied, a diaphragm leak will rapidly remove the vacuum from the other side not being controlled, so losing servo assistance. Listening for hisses from the vent port (hidden on the back of the servo somewhere) can also give clues, but usually needs 2 people who both know what they are doing. A rare luxury for me, I don't often have even one person who really knows what he is doing on many of the jobs I try for the first time!
  5. I am with Isetta in suspecting a servo / vacuum problem. Pumping the pedal with engine off will remove(*) any vacuum in the servo, and the brakes will fell very hard on the pedal, but will not be applying much pressure at the disks & drums. Start the engine and the pedal will drop as soon as vacuum builds up, it will also feel quite a lot more spongy. This does not necessarily mean there is air in it, there is flexibility in the whole system: Flexi-hoses, brake pad compression, and particularly with disk calipers, there is a surprisingly large amount of flex in the caliper itself. The much greater hydraulic pressure you get with the servo will show up this flexibility, while it will feel solid with the pathetic pressure you can get manually. If the pedal goes hard halfway down its travel, then most likely it has run out of vacuum, and the servo is not providing any further assistance. It is possible there is a problem with one axle, but if so, I would suspect the front, as that provides the majority of the braking. I believe there is a safety point in the pedal travel where the pressure to each axle becomes separate. This means that a pipe burst or sudden major brake failure will not result in all 4 brakes being lost, only one axle. But if the braking past this point feels really feeble, I think the problem must either be in the front axle, or in the servo / master cylinder. I had something like this once. Approaching a roundabout at the end of a dual carriageway, while braking there was a loud bang, and the pedal shot right down. I am sure there was still some braking, as I had quite a bit of speed to lose, now rather urgently! I did manage to release the pedal after a few seconds, and re-apply, and got back to more normal braking. And just about slowed enough, but it was very scary. After the roundabout, I pulled over, and tested the brakes, they seemed fine, so I continued the journey home very cautiously, after I had stopped shaking! When I inspected it, one back disk pad was worn rather thin, and another was missing entirely! The pad had detached from the backing plate, and was thin enough to shoot out through the narrow gap between caliper / bracket and the disk. That was the bang I heard, and the caliper piston movement needed then allowed the pedal right down. This was on my previous car, a Vauxhall with horrible rear brake set-up: tiny drum handbrake inside a rear disk, and a hydraulic union had to be disconnected to properly inspect or change the rear pads. Yuk. My Focus is easy to maintain, and brakes are fully serviced every year now! * Note: Yes I know that, pedantically, a vacuum is nothing and can not be removed. But mathematically, negative and relative quantities as just as valid as absolute ones, so as long as it is known and accepted that a "servo vacuum" is where part of the normal atmospheric air has been removed, the term vacuum can be used as if it were a real, positive thing!
  6. I have never tried ELMConfig myself ("What are you, Man or Mouse?", "Errr, Squeak, squeak, where's the cheese"), so I haven't verified this, but there is a suggestion it is possible:
  7. It almost has to be a fault on the IC (Instrument Cluster) pcb. I guess it is the same as the Focus & other cars, which use tiny stepper motors to drive the needles, all controlled from a big micro-processor. This chip gets most of its info, including speed, rpm & engine temperature, from other modules over the CAN bus. So if all other functions are fine, the CAN bus and the other modules must be ok. If it is just that gauge, then it would limit the problem to the connections between the micro-processor & the stepper motor and the motor itself. On many Ford cars there is a gauge sweep test you can do by holding in the mileage reset button while turning on the ignition. This would verify if it was a local fault only affecting the speedo.
  8. Having the 2 electric window option makes it a bit more likely the fault is in the BCM. The 4 electric windows version has electronic modules in each door that accept the door switches for locking. windows, mirrors etc, and control the locking motors. These door modules get commands over a CAN bus from the BCM for central locking etc. The 2 electric windows version has minimal electronics in the doors, all the switches & motors are directly controlled by the BCM. There could still be a problem with a switch in the door, or a wire or connector between the switches & the BCM, but it seems sensible to start with the BCM. You may have to be prepared to dismantle the BCM a bit to remove the covers and have a good look at the pcb. I have not done this myself, I tend not to mess with things that seem to be working! I did have to dismantle my IC, which was a bit daunting. Though as I was almost certain it was broken, I had little to lose! I suspect there are YouTubes & stuff about the BCM.
  9. I just checked my (UK) owners manual. On normal (single) locking it says "On vehicles without double locking, the indicators will flash twice". On double locking it says the "indicators will flash twice". So it should depend on whether the car has the double locking facility (which prevents it being unlocked manually from the inside, so the old trick of wire (or arm) in through a part open window does not work.) But outside the UK things may vary. The programming option I was thinking of is to do with un-locking, so is probably not relevant. From your symptoms given, I do not really suspect the IC (Instrument cluster), it has almost nothing to do with locking & remote control. It does get an ignition on signal from the BCM, and if that was playing up, it could make the gauges go a bit odd. But without proper diagnostics, nothing can be entirely ruled out. The BCM is easier to get to than door modules, (Does the car have 4 electric windows, or just front electric & back manual? It does have a big effect on the way the locking works.) So looking at that first seems a good idea. Forscan is a comprehensive and inexpensive diagnostic system that might well help to narrow it down a bit. There is also a test procedure for the BCM that can help check most of its input & output circuits: "Press and hold in the rear demister button while turning ignition to the run position, and you will get a tone. Once activated the test mode will sound a tone when any switch or lever is triggered. Open each door in turn, bonnet, boot, wiper, indicators, heater & a/c controls etc and a tone will sound/hazard lights will flash which will make it easier to pin down any faults."
  10. Those two items sound normal. LCD stays lit for several minutes after leaving the car. If it goes out after 30 mins or so, it is fine. Indicators do not blink on standard locking, they double blink on double locking (2nd press of the lock button). (I half recall there may be a way to set it for blink on lock, but default is no blink). If it is only one door that is misbehaving, then it is likely to be a problem in that door latch. If all doors do it together, it could be a problem in the driver's door latch or module, as that controls all of them. But as Unofix says, it is more likely to be a problem with water getting in the BCM (passenger fusebox).
  11. Is it the camshaft sensor? If so, it will certainly go direct to the PCM. Pic of cylinder head, sensor marked 12K073. Pic from: https://ford.7zap.com/en/car/54/no/13/1549/15351/66617/ Later cars have a glowplug module that can monitor the current in each plug, but models brought out before about 2010 did not usually have this, and the 4 wires should all go to the glowplug fuse & relay in the fusebox. I have found no reference to any glowplug module for the 2001-2008 model Fiesta. Glowplug currents can be 15A per plug, up to 60A total, so heavy cable is needed. 2.5mm^2 for a single plug, 6mm^2 for a combined wire seems to be typical.
  12. The software in these cars, and in fact just about all modern software, never ceases to make me confused and befuddled! Without calibration factors to enter, I assume the software must be self-adjusting to compensate for differences. A reset will, I suppose, put it back to a nominal state, which will not be ideal, but should work. Then if the whole system is behaving as the software writers assumed, the adjustments will slowly bring it to the more ideal state. Thus on an older car, which behaves differently to a new one, the adjustments may take longer, and may sometimes fail to operate properly. The assumptions will be based on new cars. So how long it takes, and whether it works at all, will depend on the state of the whole engine, and how it is driven in the 1st 100 or so miles after the reset. The ECU can only measure injector performance indirectly. Knock sensors may help, by recording both sharpness and timing of the actual ignition, but other measurements like fuel consumption (injector pulse width needed for certain conditions) may well be used. But whatever is used, steady driving conditions for a few minutes at a time at a variety of different speeds & powers will help. It can not adapt while accelerating through the gears, for example. Give it a bit longer, and see if a wiring related problem returns. And try to keep an eye on those DTCs. They can appear even with no EML on, and if they continue, it would suggest some underlying cable problem that is upsetting the system.
  13. As far as I know, there are no calibration codes to enter with the VDO type injectors. See if Forscan actually offers the option, it is not available on the Focus. The learned values reset is the only procedure I am aware of. Stranded cable can corrode inside the insulation, especially if water has got in. There may be no sign of it on the outside, and a normal multimeter continuity test may not detect it, the cable resistance just rises a bit, and becomes variable. You would have to use a low resistance tester to detect a fault like this. A couple of ohms could be enough to slow down the signals enough to make a detectable difference to the injections. Piezo crystals are capacitors that have to be charged to quite a high voltage very quickly, and this requires a substantial current surge, despite the fact that they measure high impedance or open circuit to a simple DC resistance test. I was a bit confused about the airbag! My spelling is absdoerlutely aewrful too, but this site has an excellent editing facility, which I make a Lot of use of! Like Just now.
  14. I doubt if there is any connector between the injector and the ECU. I believe the ECU is under the wing behind the NSF wheel arch liner on the 2008 Mondeo, the same as the Focus. That stacks up with what you saw. On the Focus there is a big multi-plug right at the top of the engine, behind the cam cover, which does not seem to appear on the circuit schematics. I am not sure if the Mondeo has this, and I guess you have checked it if it is there. I don't know for sure if the injector wires go through this anyway, as I have no pin-out of it. The piezo injector signals are high speed, high voltage (70v typ) high current (7A quoted) signals, so they will be kept as direct as possible. So the only place to check them is at the ECU connector, I can get a pin-out for the Focus ECU, if the Mondeo has a related Siemens / Continental ECU then it may be similar. They should be twisted wire pairs if that is any help. And a heavier gauge than the CAN-Bus, which is also a twisted pair. ECU connectors are usually secured or protected by a headless security bolt that has to be drilled or ground out, just to add to the problems!
  15. The DTCs that will be stored in conjunction with that light are critical. It could be that there is a completely different fault, like air in the fuel, faults in the main pump or its wiring, etc, etc. Just because it is a 2008 model, it does not mean that it must be the injectors, especially as they have been changed. When it comes to testing wiring & connectors, fiddling about with it in-situ with the engine running can reveal more than taking it out and trying to use visual inspection or a multimeter. Obviously, with a running engine you need to plan ahead a bit, and do careful investigations about what gets hot, and what moves before touching anything, but most of the wiring run will be accessible. It will follow the most direct available wiring path from the injectors to the ECU.
  16. That is not entirely the fault of Forscan, it is the car! These older cars do not have the current monitoring device (Battery Monitoring Sensor) fitted to the battery. I suspect the alternator itself can measure current, and the Alt-Mon signal from the alternator to the PCM may well be that current, but there are 2 problems there: Alt-Mon is displayed on Forscan in % (it is a simple PWM waveform), with no hard & fast way to decode it to Amps; Also the alternator current is not the battery current, you have to know all the load currents to work that one out. The software in the car faces the same problems, it has to estimate load currents, so after-market add-ons, mods and faulty parts will make those estimates incorrect. So this generation of smart charge was never going to be capable of the fine control of charging current that you get on the Mk3 and later Foci, and other contemporary Fords. It is interesting to hear about how accurate charge current control can be with the BMS. Though there are still assumptions and problems, particularly relating to SoC (State of Charge). This is critically dependant on battery condition, and that is a variable that remains way beyond the capabilities of any sensors or software to make accurate estimation about. Hence the huge number of topics on problems with Stop-Start systems and the like, which tend to rely on these SoC estimates. Replacing useable batteries at 50% (or less) of their potential life is most certainly not a good approach, in my books anyway, to get some fancy software add-on to work! I think that is partly right, but noise and driveability may also be improved by using the glowplugs after starting. My engine sounds like a bag of nails for the first minute or two after a start at about 5C or below. It is not that clapped out, since when I first start it after an oil change, with no oil in the filter, there is no real change of engine sound when the oil pressure LED goes out, which is something I often had on previous cars. The Common rail direct injection system relies on very fine oil droplets and tiny pilot injections to smooth out and speed up the ignition of the fuel, making the engine quieter. But the cold cylinders must result in delayed, and rather violent ignitions. The plugs may reduce this effect quite a lot. When I first had this car, I discovered the glowplug fuse had blown, probably before I bought it. It was fine through Autumn without the plugs, it was only the first few sub-zero starts that alerted me to a potential problem, and found the fuse was open circuit. So it will, as you say, start without them down to quite low temperatures, but can be a bit rough.
  17. I think I was sent off the track earlier, when I saw no reports of FRP DTCs, plus not being quite sure what FP meant, in particular which way up it was, I assumed FRP readings were ok. I have looked again at the 1 Nov data, and there it looked originally like FP went low (6%) for maximum fuel, and high for minimum fuel. But with the 2nd data run, and FRP DTCs placing suspicion on that sensor, it now looks like FP is low for min fuel, and high for max. This is the same way round as the IMV readings I get on my engine. When all is working, APP, FP and FRP should all track together most of the time. If FRP is mis-behaving, and reads high in error, the PCM will reduce FR to try to get the FRP reading down. Hence FRP and FR tend to go in opposite directions if there is a FRP problem. I thought I had some other 1.6TDCI data somewhere, maybe with FR on it, but can not find it just now! If FR really should read high for max fuel, then both data runs point firmly towards a faulty FRP sensor or its wiring.
  18. It is a top quality Bosch 5 year job, but is now 4 years past its warranty period! And it had been sitting for a week. So I am not surprised it is a bit low! I am beginning to wonder about its starting capability, but it has fired up after the usual first couple of compressions so far this winter. The first really cold sub-zero days might be a test for it though. I would think that even with a new, fully charged battery, if the demand exceeded alternator capacity, voltage would still drop to below 12v, though not by much. The glowplugs & cranking effort would have taken any "surface charge" off the battery, and 20 or 30A of discharge current should then get the voltage below 12v. When I tested my glowplugs, I think they drew about 60A (total) cold, dropping to about 30A as they heated up. I am not sure what alternator capacity would be at idle. I somehow doubt if it could deliver its full nameplate amps. About 2/3rds of it would be my (wild) guess. I do not recall hearing about controlled output rectifiers, but can believe it. It seems a bit of a cheap and nasty way to control output, I guess they just use SCRs. These can only (without some very fancy circuits) operate at the phase rotation rate, once they are on, they stay on until the ac voltage from the stator coil reverses. So the output will be very lumpy. But it might be cheaper or easier, especially a decade or so ago, when good power MOSFETs cost an arm and a leg, while beefy SCRs were dirt cheap.
  19. After reading that (I don't approve of loosening HP pipes, there is a chance of leaks or even getting swarf into injectors, but this might be an exception!), I looked at the Forscan data, and did not like the look of the FRP signal. It seemed to be spiking up for no reason, and FP was going down. Normally they both go in the same direction, up when APP goes up to increase fuel & RPM. I wondered if there were any FRP DTCs.. Also at 104 sec, there is a little FRP spike fo no apparent reason. I guess the car was in neutral for this test. And at 77.5sec, FRP jumps from 392Bar to 1790Bar in about 1.2sec, which is too high and too fast to be realistic, I think. Then I looked at the DTC lists, and FRP was there. So relying on FRP to determine if fuel is present in the rail won't work if FRP is dodgy, justifying the leak test. If FRP reads high because of a wiring or sensor fault, the PCM will not activate the fuel metering valve (FP or IMV), so the engine will not start.
  20. The Mk2/2a is getting on a bit now. But many are still giving good service. Battery charging, Alternators and so-called Smart charge remain complex and often puzzling areas, and maybe even more so in cars that have reached the "mature" stage of their life! I have read a great deal about the infamous smart charge system, and much of it is conflicting, confusing, or sometimes downright wrong. One problem is that on these cars, and other Ford models of similar age, the alternator is controlled from the PCM (aka ECU or ECM). This part is provided by other companies, and is likely to be largely programmed by them, with specifications provided by Ford. And each engine has a different PCM. My 1.8 (Lynx) has the VDO / Seimens / Continental fuel injection system, and the PCM is part of that. It is very likely there will be significant differences in detail, as to how the charging system works on PCMs from different suppliers. In principle, the smart charge system is a simple & cheap modification to a standard alternator. A standard alternator has an inbuilt regulator, that energises the field winding with a PWM signal. This is an efficient way to control the alternator output, which would otherwise rise with rpm. Cutting back the current in the field winding reduces the output, to match the rpm & demand. The regulator must do 2 jobs, regulate the voltage for the best battery charging voltage without over-charging it, and limit the output current to protect the alternator from overload. So there is already a way to PWM modulate the field current & a way to measure current. All Ford had to do was request an extra connector be fitted, which gives access to both the field PWM directly, and the current or load signal. And for there to be a way that signals on this connector can over-ride the internal regulator, and control the field PWM directly. Then the PCM can take over control. It knows a bit about demand, as it can interrogate the BCM (aka GEM or Passenger Fuse Box) to find what is switched on, and it can measure battery voltage, temperature and time since start, etc. So, in principle, the PCM can manage the battery voltage better than the alternator itself can. As I do not know much detail, with any certainty, about how it really works, and in response to a request from a member, I have done a quick Forscan data run on my 1.8TDCI during a cold start. It does show a few details of how the charging system responds to heavy loads. This shows the starting. The green voltage line dips as I turned off the ignition briefly to initiate a new glowplug cycle. (Ignition needs to be on to set-up and start getting data in Forscan, but it survived the ignition off dip ok, The PCM does not power down for quite a few seconds after ignition off) During the glowplug on time (orange line), voltage dipped to a low of about 10.7v, then slowly recovered as the plugs heated up. The plugs did switch off when the glowplug LED went out. During cranking, voltage dropped to 9.2v. As the engine fired up, the glowplugs came back on again. Voltage rose to about 13.2v over the next 10 seconds. Over the next few minutes, I tested varying loads. Heated rear window & mirrors, Headlights, Main Beam, & vent fan on full. On applying one heavy load, voltage dipped to about 12v, then recovered to near 13v. But applying both heated rear window and main beam dropped the voltage to 11.7v, and it did not recover until the load was reduced. Glowplugs were still on at this time. The lowest I recorded was 11.4v, with the 3 above loads on. With no load except basic ignition & glowplugs, voltage did get up to about 14.2v. After about 150sec. of being on, glowplugs turned off. After this the lowest voltage with all loads above was 12.7v, and the unloaded voltage was 14.2v to 14.3v. Note that the Forscan voltage is not exactly the battery voltage. It will be measured inside the PCM, and voltage drops in cables between the battery and the main fuse box will have a small effect on the readings. Loaded voltages will be a little lower at the PCM than at the battery. Maybe 0.1v to 0.2v. For keen Forscan users, the complete file is below. You will have to change the .TXT extension to .FSL after downloading it, for Forscan to be able to read it. I can't upload .FSL files directly! start-gp.txt
  21. With Reynauds it is no gimmick, I doubt I could drive a car in Winter (or Spring or Autumn all to often) without it now! It brings back enjoyment into Winter driving. Like you, my bad habit for many, many years of driving mostly with one hand on the wheel has gone away almost entirely! So there is one add-on that does improve road safety a tad. It was a lot of work, on a basic 2006 Focus, I had little option but to build it myself. However it is the best mod I have done.
  22. They look and sound pretty good. To be honest, I have just used standard chock-block type screw terminals for my add-ons in the engine bay, mostly non-critical, but some are a bit more important like the MAP sensor. I have had problems with rust, and replaced a few, but by and large they do the job. However for Injectors I think something better is called for, and if the advertised connectors are anything like as good as they say and look, they should be fine. Wire: Any reputable manufacturer will do. Alpha wire & BICC are 2 that come to mind. But wire is quite strictly controlled, and as long as it is traceable to a reputable manufacturer and complies with basic standards, then it will be fine. Go for 105C rating at least though, not the 85C PVC type. Terms like UL, CSA & BS are good to look out for, though only if you are buying via a trustworthy seller! My electrical crimping tool is an extremely basic pressed steel job, but it produces reliable and good joints if used carefully. A basic tool used carefully, with some testing to ensure correct crimping, can be much better than a fancy, ratchet type automatic crimper that is not good quality, or is not exactly the right tool for the job. It is a bit different with miniature electronic crimping, you do need the right tool there, but for 1.5mm^2 wire you can see what you are doing quite easily.
  23. I've only ever seen or heard of flash code 16 for the CAN bus fault. Also you are outside the date range for the real peak of the IC solder problem, though they are generally not the most reliable bit of kit, so it can't be ruled out. Replacing the transponder coil is cheap & easy, so I would go down that route first. Then look again at the IC, paying special attention to the circuits from the transponder. Pins 3,5 & 6 are the transponder connections to the big connector on the IC. Pin1 on the transponder is a +12v (Ignition) supply, which does not come from the IC, so also should be checked. Using Forscan to double check what errors (DTCs) are being generated will also help. There will usually be a massive difference between the error codes from a CAN bus fault, and those just from a transponder fault.
  24. I had a quick scan, they are both correct, but wording has been changed quite a lot. Audio modules does fit reasonably with satnav & touchscreen. In my proper Ford manual F68 is "Accessory to cluster (audio & navigation unit)" So the essential difference is F58 is always on (battery direct), F68 is from the Ign switch, and is on in Acc & Ign positions. If everything works ok with F58 removed, I would leave it out. It could be that the radio or other modules will forget their settings if F58 is missing, as they will be completely powered down when the Ign is off. But at least they will be less likely to flatten the battery due to spurious activity while supposed to be off. It should do no harm to test it.
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